This is the first of a series of posts discussing Diyari words, roughly one each week.
Diyari has two important words: thayirna, which generally translates as ‘to eat’ and thaparna, which we are going to look at today.
The Diyari word thaparna is generally used when we would say ‘drink’ in English, for example:
- Ngathu ngapa thapayi ‘I am drinking water’
- Yundru kupula thaparna warayi ‘You drank beer’
- Nhulu thirti thapalha nganayi ‘He will drink tea’
However, it is used more widely in Diyari in situations where English might use ‘eat’, ‘suck’ or some other word. Here are some examples showing its wider use:
- to suck liquid or soft matter out of a container, as in:
- Kupali ngama thapayi ‘The child is sucking the breast’
- Thanali paya kapi thapayi ‘They are sucking (the contents out of) the (raw) bird’s eggs’
- Kankuyali thurintyi thapayi mukundru ‘The boy is sucking marrow out of the bone’
- to eat, slurp up, or chew on soft or semi-liquid food or fruit [for hard food we use thayirna ‘to eat’], as in:
- Ngathu ngantyayi kilthi thapalha ‘I like to eat stew’
- Thanali pawa thapayi ‘They are slurping up ground seed (mixed with water)’
- Nhandru danyu thapayi ‘She is eating danyu fruit’ [for all soft fruits like grapes or ripe peaches we would say thaparna but for hard fruits like apple then we use thayirna]
- to kiss, as in [notice the word marna for ‘mouth’]:
- Ngandriyali kupa marna thapayi ‘The mother is kissing the child’
- Ngathu yinha marna thapalha nganayi ‘I will kiss you’
- Karnali parru thapayi ‘The man is kissing a fish’. The missionary Reverend Reuther reports that in the old days when men when fishing with yama ‘nets’ if no fish are caught in the net, one man would go down into the water, whistle into a hollow bone, and sing his mura ancestral song. After this, the first fish to be caught is kissed while the man has bread in his mouth, and then released to swim again, in order to entice other fish into the net.
So remember, thayirna is used for eating hard foods like meat, bread or hard fruit and vegetables, while thaparna is used for eating soft or semi-liquid food and fruit, for kissing, and for drinking liquids.
Words in the examples
|danyu||type of fruit|
|kankuyali||boy (active subject form)|
|kupali||child (active subject form)|
|kupula||beer, alcohol, grog|
|nganayi||‘to be’, also used to indicate future ‘will do’|
|ngandriyali||mother (active subject form)|
|ngantyarna||to like, want’|
|ngathu||I (active subject form)|
|pawa||ground seed, flour|
|thaparna||to drink, suck, slurp, kiss|
|yinha||you (one person), object form|
|yundru||you (one person), active subject form|