The dog bit the man
does not mean the same thing as:
The man bit the dog
In English the subject (person or thing doing the action) comes first, the verb (action word) comes next and finally the object (person or thing affected by the action) comes at the end. In English we always have subject-verb-object.
In Dieri, the functions of the words in a sentence are indicated by the endings that they take. So, the subject of a transitive sentence (one that involves two participants) takes the ending -li or -yali while the object does not take an ending. Look at these examples:
karnali kinthala matharna warayi ‘The man bit the dog’
kinthalali karna matharna warayi ‘The dog bit the man’
Because they have different endings, we can switch the order of the words in Dieri without changing the meaning (the verb normally goes at the end of Dieri sentences):
kinthala karnali matharna warayi ‘The man bit the dog’
karna kinthalali matharna warayi ‘The dog bit the man’
So, even though the one affected comes first in these sentences we know who does the action because of the -li ending.
English allows a little bit of variation when we add things like places to describe a situation, but you cannot switch around subjects and objects without changing the meaning:
John took his sister from Adelaide to Port Augusta
John took his sister to Port Augusta from Adelaide
Here there is a shift in emphasis but the meaning is the same. If we switch the subject and object, however, the meaning changes completely:
His sister took John from Adelaide to Port Augusta
His sister took John to Port Augusta from Adelaide
Now, in Dieri there is a lot more freedom to change around word order because of the role that the endings play. For example, when Aunty Rene was asked how to say the following:
I want to teach my children my language
she said in Dieri:
ngathu ngantyayi ngakarni kupa kirringankalha ngakarni yawarra
Word-by-word this is: ‘I-subject want my child to-teach my language’
When Aunty Winnie was asked how to say the same thing, she said in Dieri:
ngathu ngantyayi yawarra kirringankalha ngakarni kupa-kupa
Word-by-word this is: ‘I-subject want language to-teach my child’
(Aunty Winnie uses kupa-kupa ‘small child’, while Aunty Rene just uses kupa ‘child’. Remember that Dieri does not generally make a difference between one or more than one person or thing, so kupa means ‘child’ or ‘children’. To be more specific we can say kupa-wara ‘children’ which uses the ending -wara meaning ‘three or more’.)
So, don’t be surprised when speaking Dieri that words can occur in different orders but the meaning stays the same.
Note: The title of today’s post yathani yaruldramatha means ‘talking the same’: yathani is a noun based on the verb yatha-rna ‘to speak, talk’ while yaruldramatha means ‘same, identical’.